Dual diagnosis refers to a person who presents with both a substance use disorder and at least one mental health condition; the result is a dual diagnosis. This is more common than you might think, and according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) approximately 45% of adults in the US suffer from co-occurring disorders all the time. For instance, alcohol and/or drug addiction frequently co-occur alongside conditions like depression and anxiety. According to a study by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, people with depression are twice as likely to have some type of substance use disorder, and those with bipolar disorder are seven times as likely to have a substance use disorder.
The Most Common Co-Occurring Disorders :
- Depression and Cocaine Addiction
- Cocaine abuse and severe its withdrawal can lead to more depression. They could create a cycle of increased cocaine use to avoid depression and feel better, clearly intensifying each other. It is advisable treating these conditions with antidepressants, nonetheless, it must be carefully supervised by a physician.
The most common types of depression are
- Major depression; extreme sadness, lethargy, and irritability lasting more than two weeks.
- Dysthymia; a persistent melancholic mood lasting more than 1 year that could lead to significant depression.
- Seasonal affective disorder; mood changes, anxiety, and sleep problems associated with seasonal changes.
- Atypical depression; a chronic depression that may be temporarily alleviated by good news and quickly reverting to a very low mood.
- Postpartum Depression; a complex set of emotional and behavioral changes that some women feel after giving birth. Some people also refer to it as Baby Blue. Researchers have found that women with postpartum depression are at a greater risk for substance abuse than postpartum women without depressive symptoms. Studies also show that women with a history of substance abuse are more likely to show symptoms of postpartum depression. Most commonly substances used by new mothers include:
- Prescription Psychoactive drugs (including: Opioids, Stimulants, and Benzodiazepines)
Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Alcohol Abuse
Because alcohol is a sedative. And it is well known that many people with ADHD Using alcohol to calm and “slow down,” which, unfortunately, often has the opposite effect, because Alcohol also affects the frontal lobe of the brain. which hinders clear thinking When ADHD suffers from alcohol user They will have to deal with uncontrollable emotions and risky behaviors.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Opioid Addiction & SSRIs
According to the DSM-5, PTSD is caused by intense or prolonged psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic events.
PTSD is long-lived, and it becomes debilitating, affecting what for many people are considered simple daily tasks. People struggling with PTSD commonly battle depression and/or other anxiety disorders along with substance abuse.
Evidence base treatment for PTSD psychopharmacology includes selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): sertraline, paroxetine and fluoxetine, as well as the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine. The body gets used to these medications, and if a person stops taking them suddenly, they can experience withdrawal or antidepressant discontinuation syndrome.
Opioid use is not uncommon with PTSD patients; exposure to opioid analgesics increases the risk of developing an addiction.
Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol
Bipolar disorders are described by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a group of brain disorders that cause extreme fluctuation in a person’s mood, energy, and ability to function. These are described as manic and depressive episodes. To escape their uneasiness
People suffering from bipolar disorder tend to turn to alcohol or drugs, which could develop into an addiction, changing the brain reward system and other parts of the brain that regulate mood and behavior
Schizophrenia and Marijuana Addiction.
Schizophrenia is a rare mental health disease that impairs how you think, make decisions, and handle emotions. Several studies have found that marijuana, is one of the most commonly abused substances among people with schizophrenia; the same studies also found that when you’re high on marijuana, you can have psychotic symptoms. The effect goes away as the high wears off.
Eating Disorders and Appetite Suppressants.
Many people do not consider appetite suppressants as addictive. However, substances that are abused for their hunger-reducing and fat-burning properties become addictive with frequent use. People with food-related disorders also frequently abuse laxatives, diuretics, emetics, amphetamines, cocaine, and heroin. Affecting also their mental and physical health relationships, work, and family life.